Proportional Representation powerpoint presentations for explaining and calculating seat allocations using various PR and election systems: St Lague (Sainte-Laguë), Modified St Lague (Modified Sainte Laguë), D'hondt (dhondt), STV, MMP (AMS), AV (Alternative Vote), Two-Tier PR and Two round majoritarian electoral systems, and and the first past the post (FPTP) method - free to use for non-commercial use.
This website gives you free Powerpoint demonstrations that explain how to calculate the seats that are allocated through the most common methods of Proportional Representation and other seat allocation methods. It also allows you to download an Excel speadsheet that calculates the seats allocation through the St Lague, Modified St Lague and d'Hondt methods of PR and other seat allocation methods. The files are free for personal study and for public presentations where no money is involved but costs a small amount otherwise - see the full copyright notice below.
The files are designed for presenting in workshops, public sessions and courses. The files currently expect some level of prior knowledge about electoral systems.
Dr Peter Clayton is available as a presenter and facilitator for presenting these files and explaining the different electoral systems. Click here to email him.
Powerpoint demonstrations of Proportional Representation and other seat allocation methods
You must read the How To Guide at the bottom of this page or the presentations will be unreadable because they are dynamic and may not appear properly otherwise!
The following files are available for downloading and using:
Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) seat allocation explanation and demonstration (mixture of Proportional Representation and First Past the Post) - a hybrid system called Additional Member System (AMS) in the UK. A form of MMP is to use AV (see below) to assign the constituency seats and then called AV+ in the UK.
Single Transferable Vote (STV) seat allocation explanation and demonstration - Alternative Vote (AV) is the same as this but used for single seat constituencies - can also be used as a form of MMP to be called AV+ in the UK.
Please contact Peter Clayton to ask for modifications in layout or content, or to personalise the files with your own logo and headings.
Excel Seat Allocation Software for calculation Proportional Representation
PR seat allocation Excel software using St Lague, Modified St Lague and d'Hondt methods (Warning: large 8Mb file)
Press the "Read Only" button when you open the file.
The Excel file works in Excel 2003 and Excel 2007 and works for upto 50 parties and upto 500 seats.
Please contact Peter Clayton for modifications in layout or increasing the number of parties or seats, or to personalise the file with your own logo and headings.
Ballot Symbol Lottery Software
Press the "Read Only" button when you open the file.
Modify the party names and then select a Symbol ID for each of them in turn from the drop-down list. You cannot select the same symbol twice.
The Excel file works in Excel 2003 and Excel 2007 and works for upto 12 parties and upto 12 symbols.
Please contact Peter Clayton for modifications in layout or increasing the number of parties or symbols, or to personalise the file with your own logo and headings. This will incur a charge.
Right click on the files you want from the following list and select the "Save Target As..." or the "Save File As..." menu option.
Select the folder on your computer that you want to save it to and press the Save/OK button.
Go to that folder and open up the file. (Note that if you don't have Microsoft Powerpoint installed then you can install the free Powerpoint Viewer software from here.)
It will ask you for a password but press the "Read Only" button instead to view the file. The presentations are protected by a password to change them but you are not prevented from viewing them.
Press F5 to work your way through the presentation by pressing the Enter/Space button or by clicking your mouse at the appropriate time. Please allow a short time after each click/press to allow the dynamic movements to start.
Important Note: You need to RUN the powerpoint presentation to be able to view the explanation (ie Press F5). If you just open it without running the presentation then you will not be able to read it - this is because it is a dynamic presentation.
For EU elections the UK is split into 12 regions and within each region a PR system is used (d'Hondt- see below for an explanation). However if you use the same PR system nationwide instead of regional groupings then you would get the result above where the UKIP party would get 4 less seats than they did (20 insteead of 24), the Green party would get 3 more seats (6 instead of 3) and the Liberal Democrat party would get four more seats (5 instead of 1). Plaid Cymru would have one less seat so woulc have received no seats at all, whereas the An Independence From Europe party would have gained one seat.
See below for a comparison of electoral systems for the UK General Election 2010 as if it had used PR instead of First Past The Post.
If you want to share this graph with people then please send them a link to this website. You do not need a licence to create a link to this website but you do need to get a licence to copy and re-use the numbers and graphs from this website in any publications or on external websites. Not-for-profit organisations will not be charged for a licence but should still request a free licence.
Please contact Peter Clayton for a licence. Un-licenced use will cost £1000 per use.
This site is also found at the following locations:
modified st lague.com
modified st lague.co.uk
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Election results administration and seat allocation calculation software using Modified St Lague, D'hondt (dhondt), MMP, proportional representation and first past the post (FPTP) methods